In this post, we will look at the world of the African wild dog. This lean longed legged carnivore is built for speed and endurance.
In the process, we will investigate African wild dogs' distinctive features.
This will explain why they are one of the most efficient hunters in Africa.
It is when they hunt that the key role of the pack becomes truly clear.
In addition to their hunting techniques, we will also have a look at what habitat they prefer, how these African carnivores breed, and how they communicate with each other.
44-55 pounds (20—25 kilogram)
24-30 inches (60-75 centimeters)
The muzzle is heavy, with huge rounded ears and dark eyes.
Blotched - black, white, and tan. This varies between individuals and across geographical areas. The tail has a white tip.
Also called the hunting dog or the painted dog, these wildlife animals are currently disappearing
from Africa at an alarming rate. During the last century, these from 500,000 to only 6,500 today.
They used to live in the Northern and Southern Savanna.
Sadly, persecution, disease, and depletion of their habitats have caused a frightening decline in their numbers, raising fears that one of Africa's most fascinating animals could soon become extinct.
Sub-Saharan Africa is home to African wild dogs. This is the African region south of the Sahara Desert.
Currently, the biggest populations can be found in Southern Africa, Tanzania and northern Mozambique.
African Wild Dog, African Hunting Dog, Cape Hunting Dog, Painted Hunting Dog, Painted Wolf, and Painted Dog. We will therefore use these names interchangeably.
Painted wolves are active during the day because they hunt by sight, although they sometimes take advantage of bright moonlight to hunt at night.
Like most African animals they tend to rest in the shade during the hottest part of the day.
The habitat that these painted dogs prefer will be open grasslands, woodlands, and bushveld.
These African carnivores requires vast ranges to roam.
For this reason, it is only the largest of protected areas like the Kruger National Park or Hwange National Park that can maintain viable populations in the long term.
Their need for huge areas is just one of the factors that make them one of the most endangered species in Africa.
Typically, only one pair in the pack breeds.
Very rarely will a second female give birth and if this happens the dominant female may kidnap and raise her young.
In extreme cases, she will even kill these pups.
This is done to maintain an optimum pack size.
Litter sizes average around ten pups.
Cape hunting dog mothers have their pups in underground holes like old aardvark diggings.
Males will stay in the pack and help raise subsequent litters.
The females leave the pack to seek out other breeding opportunities, as soon as the pups are grown-ups. The males stay behind to form the core of the pack.
The pups begin to wean at only two weeks of age.
The whole pack regurgitates food for them will contribute to raising them if the mother should die.
Intense social interactions, mostly involving sniffing and muzzle licking bond African wild dog packs.
When they are excited, such as before a hunt or just after a kill they will give a high-pitched "twitter".
These African animals have a very strong body odor.
Dogs separated from the pack track their way back to it by smell.
Their long-range contact call is a musical "hoooo" that carries for 2 to 3 km.
They also whine when begging and their alarm call is a deep bark.
Urine scent marks are used to show that an area is occupied.
The dominant female will also scent mark to advertise that she is sexually receptive.
The dominant male immediately urinates on top of her scent marks, to deter competitors.
They also communicate by body posture and tail position.
Tail tucked between the leg's signals fear and submissiveness.
A friendly dog has an upright posture, and it curls its tail up over its back.
An aggressive dog will be rigidly upright.
Adults, as well as pups, play.
They rely on their phenomenal stamina to tire their prey and the combined strength of the pack to bring the prey down.
Often, they do not attempt concealment and approach potential prey openly at a slow trot.
You will notice how they will keep their heads low and ears back.
They will break into a run only when the prey flees.
They may rush a herd into flight and then stand to watch to identify potential members of the herd that is slower than the rest.
The leading dog, which is usually the dominant male or female will select a particular target and pursues it in a very single-minded manner.
The rest of the pack will follow in lines behind the leader.
Often one of the other dogs chooses a different prey and so lead some of the dogs on another chase.
In this case, the pack splits up and multiple kills may be made.
As soon as the dog catches up with the prey it will pull it down if
it is small enough.
In the case of larger prey, it will run alongside and slash at its rump to slow it down until more dogs catch up.
The dogs then bite chunks out of the prey and disembowel it.
The prey then dies of shock and loss of blood.
Wild dogs can reach speeds of 60 kilometers per hour during the chase.
This is too slow to catch a medium-sized antelope during a short sprint chase.
Instead, they depend on their stamina in long pursuits to wear down the prey.
Most chases cover 3-5 km pursuits to wear down the prey.
African wild dogs play a key role in eliminating sick and weak animals amongst their target prey species.
They are specialized hunters of medium-sized antelope in the 15-50 kilogram range like springbok, and impala.
They will also take animals such as small as hares and occasionally warthogs and foxes.
They very rarely scavenge.
Statistics indicate that kills in the Kruger National Park consist of 8% Kudu, 75% impala and 15% smaller antelope.
In Southern Africa, they do not hunt adult wildebeest and zebra.
Statistics indicate that the prey has only ten to thirty percent chances of escaping from their hunting expeditions.
This compares to a six to eight in ten chance of evading an attack by lions or hyenas.
In Hwange National Park their diet consists of 54% impala and 23% kudu.
They sometimes face intense competition from spotted hyenas that will team up with one another to push the dogs aside.
This makes speed especially important when they feed to avoid the kill being stolen.
A pack of wild dogs is normally able to keep hyenas at bay because some of the dogs concentrate on guard duty while the others feed.
Wild dogs have specially adapted teeth to consume a meal in the quickest possible time. These teeth allow them to shred the carcass of prey rapidly because as smaller African animal they always face the risk of having their meals stolen by other, bigger predators.
The larger the pack of
dogs, the better their chances of keeping spotted hyenas at bay.
They do not fight with each other like lions and hyenas do during feeding. They can eat 100 kilograms of meat from an adult kudu in 15 minutes.
An especially important part of wild dog hunting and feeding behavior is the division of the spoils after a successful hunt.
Some dogs do not participate in the hunt because they remain behind at the den to guard puppies.
When the pack returns from the hunt, these dogs will beg for food from other members.
It does this by grinning, nudging, and nibbling their lips, licking their faces, lowering its forequarters, and raising its tail.
Puppies will usually be fed first. Sick and injured African wild dogs also receive a share of meat for as long as they remain with the pack.
These African animals live in packs that can consist of anything from two to over fifty dogs.
Most packs have about 12 to 20 adult members.
A dominant male and female known as the alpha pair will head the pack.
This pair will in most cases, account for all the breeding activity.
All pack members will help raise the pups.
The rest of the pack will consist of the offspring of the current or previous alpha pair.
Wild dogs are unusual in that it is the females who leave their birth pack at 14–30 months of age and join other packs that lack sexually mature females.
The males remain in their pack to become helpers.
This is unusual because the opposite is usually true with social mammals, where a group of related females usually forms the core of the social group.
Below the alpha pair, there is no definite hierarchy.
Submissiveness and not aggression is the deciding factor during wild dog social interactions.
A typical example of this is displayed when a dog wants a piece of meat after a hunt.
The dog will beg for some meat with head and forequarters flat to the ground, hindquarters raised, ears flattened to its head, and lips drawn back.
Our African wild dogs are seriously endangered now. The main reasons for this are habitat loss causing the fact that we have fewer than 6,600 wild dogs in the wild.
Their conflict with human activities as well as infectious diseases worsens this problem.
Current conservation efforts aim to promote cape hunting dog populations through the reintroduction of these African animals into several fenced reserves.
In cases where farmers acknowledged the potential ecotourism value of wild dogs, their attitudes were more positive.
Promoting the coexistence between people and predators like the African hunting dogs will require:
Please share your feedback, favorite African wild dog facts, and observations via the comments below.